The Zero Universe
History2
George Lemaître ( 1894-1966) is the founder of a big blast theory (1931). By using the results of redshift in a spectrum he concluded that the universe is expanding.          Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974) studied the Coma cluster in 1933, a constellation of 10.000 galactic starsystems that rotate around a common centre of gravity. He concluded that in that centre more mass must be present and called it dark matter because it was not visible.  Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) called in 1948 the big blast belittled “Big Bang”  while he disagreed and favored his own “Steady State” theory. When it was possible to simulate on computers the Big Bang, the model gave problems in the time of the beginning because the speed that had to be used for the expanding is far bigger than the speed of light. The development of the atoms in the beginning is  obscure. There is no proof that the Big Bang is the right theory, but by absence of anything better it is used in the Standard Model. Since that time more and more theories are developed that must correct the existing problems like dark matter, the meaning of the redshift, the first period of the Big Bang, black holes....... It is practically the same as the search  for the heliocentric system, more and more difficult ideas and formulas to find the correct solution.